Estate Stony Ground – Animal Mill

Stony Ground is estate 7 in St. Croix’s West End Quarter. Based on appearances on historic maps, the animal mill was likely built in the mid 1750s.

Cotton is indicated being grown on the 1750 map in estate 7. Two animal mills were likely built in the mid-1750s by virtue of appearing on the second printing of the Beck map. All the later variants of the Beck map included two animal mills. The 1778 and 1799 Oxholm maps include an animal mill at Stony Ground. Of the subsequent maps, the Parsons map has structures in the area analogous to the previous maps and the Danish Atlantic Islands Association indicates a settlement. Of the topographic maps, the 1920s maps has no structures, but the 1958 and 1982 maps indicate ruins.

Ownership attribution in 1750 is to the widow Poord. The Beck variants attribute divided ownership to John Hendrick Barns in the north, Theobald Burke in the center, & P Heyliger in the south, with minor spelling variations. The Oxholm map of 1778 attributes ownership to Madame Barnes, while the 1790s maps attribute divided ownership to Barns in the north, Wm DS Newton in the center, & P Heyliger’s heirs in the south for estate 7.

McGuire geographic dictionary of the Virgin Islands (p. 184) notes the estate was overgrown with scrub, bushes, mampu, cocoloba, and tamarind in the 1920s. Notes how the ownership was incorporated with the nearby Wheel of Fortune estate.

Historic Maps of Stony Ground

Snippet of the U.S. Geological Service topographic map 1982 featuring West End Quarter estate #7, currently named Stony Ground.
The 1982 USGS topo map indicates ruins but nothing resembling an animal mill at Stony Ground.
Snippet of the U.S. Geological Service topographic map of 1958 featuring West End Quarter estate #7, currently named Stony Ground.
The 1958 USGS topo map indicates ruins but nothing resembling an animal mill at Stony Ground.
Snippet of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey topographic map of 1920 featuring West End Quarter estate #7, currently named Stony Ground.
The 1920 USCGS topographic map shows no structures at Stony Ground.
Snippet of the Danish Atlantic Islands Association map of 1907 featuring West End Quarter estate #7, currently named Stony Ground.
The 1907 map indicates a settlement at Estate Stony Ground.
Snippet of the Parsons map of 1856 featuring West End Quarter estate #7, currently named Stony Ground.
Parsons’ 1856 map depicts structures but nothing resembling a mill at Stony Ground.
Snippet of the Oxholm map of 1799 featuring West End Quarter estate #7, currently named Stony Ground.
Oxholm’s 1799 map shows an animal mill in the eastern portion of 7a, Stony ground.
Snippet of the Janssen map of 1791 featuring West End Quarter estate #7, currently named Stony Ground.
The 1791 manuscript map after Beck by Janssen attributes ownership to Barns (N) Wm DS Newton (C) & P Heyligers arvinger (S) for estate 7.
Snippet of the Mühlenfels map of 1790featuring West End Quarter estate #7, currently named Stony Ground.
The 1790 map after Beck by Mühlenfels map attributes ownership to Barns (N) Wm DS Newton (C) & P Heyligers arvinger (S) for estate 7.
Snippet of the Oxholm map of Frederiksted from 1778 featuring West End Quarter estate #7, currently named Stony Ground.
Oxholm’s 1778 map of Frederiksted shows an animal mill and other structures, along with a slave village. Ownership attributed to Madame Barns.
Snippet of the annotated Beck map of c.1770 featuring West End Quarter estate #7, currently named Stony Ground.
The c.1770 annotated Beck map illustrates two animal mills in estate 7 and splits ownership between Joh Henr Barns & Theobal Burke & P. Heyliger.
Snippet of the annotated Beck map of 1770 featuring West End Quarter estate #7, currently named Stony Ground.
The 1770 annotated Beck map illustrates two animal mills in estate 7 and splits ownership between Joh H Barens & Theob Burke & P. Heiliger.
Snippet of the undated annotated Beck map featuring West End Quarter estate #7, currently named Stony Ground.
The undated annotated Beck map illustrates two animal mills in estate 7 and splits ownership between Joh H Barns & Theobald Burke & P. Heyliger.
Snippet of the annotated Beck map of 1767 featuring West End Quarter estate #7, currently named Stony Ground.
The 1767 annotated Beck map illustrates two animal mills in estate 7 and splits ownership between Joh Hendrick Barns & Theobalt Burke & P. Heyliger.
Snippet of the Küffner map of 1767 featuring West End Quarter estate #7, currently named Stony Ground.
Küffner’s 1767 Beck replica includes an indication of settlement in the area of estate 7.
Snippet of the Zöllner manuscript copy of Beck from 1766 featuring West End Quarter estate #7, currently named Stony Ground.
The 1766 Zöllner manuscript copy of Beck map illustrates map illustrates two animal mills in estate 7 and splits ownership between JH Barns & Theobald Burke & P. Heiliger.
Snippet of the 1766 unsigned Beck manuscript copy featuring West End Quarter estate #7, currently named Stony Ground.
The 1766 unsigned manuscript copy of Beck map illustrates two animal mills in estate 7 and splits ownership between F.H. Barens/Tehob Berack/P E Hiliger.
Snippet of the annotated Beck map of 1766 featuring West End Quarter estate #7, currently named Stony Ground.
The 1766 annotated Beck map illustrates two animal mills in estate 7 and splits ownership between John Hendrick Barns & T. Bourke & P. Heyliger.
Snippet of the Beck map printed circa 1757 featuring West End Quarter estate #7, currently named Stony Ground.
The second Beck map printing shows two animal mills in estate 13.
Snippet of the Beck map printed in 1754 featuring West End Quarter estate #7, currently named Stony Ground.
The first Beck map printing shows no structures in estate 7.
Snippet of the Cronenberg and von Jaegersberg map of 1750 featuring West End Quarter estate #7, currently named Stony Ground.
By 1749, cotton is being grown in the estate, evidenced by the blue coloring. A plantation house in the northeastern corner of the estate and another in the southeastern corner has a slave village depicted to the east. Ownership attributed to Enke Poord.