Estate Good Hope – Animal Mill

Good Hope is estate 13 in St. Croix’s West End Quarter. Based on appearances on historic maps, the animal mill was likely built in the mid 1750s.

Provisions are indicated being grown on the 1750 map in estate 13. The first appearance of sugar cultivation in Good Hope, West End estate13 is an animal mill icon on the mid-1750s second printing of the Beck map. All the later variants of the Beck map included an animal mill, although the Küffner map only indicates a settlement, indicating ownership by Soebothker in the area. The 1778 and 1799 Oxholm maps include an animal mill at good hope. Of the subsequent maps, the Danish Atlantic Islands Association indicates a settlement and the 1920s topographic map indicates an old mill toward the north of the estate.

Ownership attribution in 1750 is to Johann Schmid. The Beck variants uniformly name John Smith, with minor spelling variations. The Oxholm map of 1778 also attributes ownership to John Smith, while the 1790s maps name Smith’s heirs.

McGuire geographic dictionary of the Virgin Islands (p. 84) indicates that in the 1920s, the estate was planted in sugar cane and pastureland, with historically being associates with John Smitt’s plantation.

Historic Maps of Good Hope

Snippet of the U.S. Geological Service topographic map 1982 featuring West End Quarter estate #13, currently named Good Hope.
The 1982 USGS topo map does not indicate any ruins at Good Hope.
Snippet of the U.S. Geological Service topographic map of 1958 featuring West End Quarter estate #13, currently named Good Hope.
The 1958 USGS topo map does not indicate any ruins at Good Hope.
Snippet of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey topographic map of 1920 featuring West End Quarter estate #13, currently named Good Hope.
The 1920 USCGS topographic map shows a structure and an “Old Mill” at elevation 47 feet in the northern portion of Good Hope.
Snippet of the Danish Atlantic Islands Association map of 1907 featuring West End Quarter estate #13, currently named Good Hope.
The 1907 map indicates a settlement at Estate Good Hope.
Snippet of the Parsons map of 1856 featuring West End Quarter estate #13, currently named Good Hope.
Parsons’ 1856 map depicts structures but nothing resembling a mill at Good Hope.
Snippet of the Oxholm map of 1799 featuring West End Quarter estate #13, currently named Good Hope.
Oxholm’s 1799 map shows an animal mill in the northeast area of good hope.
Snippet of the Janssen map of 1791 featuring West End Quarter estate #13, currently named Good Hope.
The 1791 manuscript map after Beck by Janssen attributes ownership to Smith’s Arvinger for estate 13.
Snippet of the Mühlenfels map of 1790featuring West End Quarter estate #13, currently named Good Hope.
The 1790 map after Beck by Mühlenfels map attributes ownership to Smith’s Arvinger for estate 13.
Snippet of the Oxholm map of Frederiksted from 1778 featuring West End Quarter estate #13, currently named Good Hope.
Oxholm’s 1778 map of Frederiksted shows an animal mill and other structures, along with a slave village. Ownership attributed to John Smith.
Snippet of the annotated Beck map of c.1770 featuring West End Quarter estate #13, currently named Good Hope.
The c.1770 annotated Beck map illustrates an animal mill and attributes ownership to John Smitt.
Snippet of the annotated Beck map of 1770 featuring West End Quarter estate #13, currently named Good Hope.
The 1770 annotated Beck map illustrates an animal mill and attributes ownership to John Smith.
Snippet of the undated annotated Beck map featuring West End Quarter estate #13, currently named Good Hope.
The undated annotated Beck map illustrates an animal mill and attributes ownership to John Smith.
Snippet of the annotated Beck map of 1767 featuring West End Quarter estate #13, currently named Good Hope.
The 1767 annotated Beck map illustrates an animal mill and attributes ownership to John Smith.
Snippet of the Küffner map of 1767 featuring West End Quarter estate #13, currently named Good Hope.
Küffner’s 1767 Beck replica includes an indication of settlement in the area of estate 13.
Snippet of the Zöllner manuscript copy of Beck from 1766 featuring West End Quarter estate #13, currently named Good Hope.
The 1766 Zöllner manuscript copy of Beck map illustrates an animal mill and attributes ownership to John Smith.
Snippet of the 1766 unsigned Beck manuscript copy featuring West End Quarter estate #13, currently named Good Hope.
The 1766 unsigned manuscript copy of Beck map illustrates an animal mill and attributes ownership to John Schmid.
Snippet of the annotated Beck map of 1766 featuring West End Quarter estate #13, currently named Good Hope.
The 1766 annotated Beck map illustrates a hand-drawn animal mill and attributes ownership to John Smith.
Snippet of the Beck map printed circa 1757 featuring West End Quarter estate #13, currently named Good Hope.
The second Beck map printing shows an animal mill near the center of estate 13.
Snippet of the Beck map printed in 1754 featuring West End Quarter estate #13, currently named Good Hope.
The first Beck map printing shows no structures in estate 13.
Snippet of the Cronenberg and von Jaegersberg map of 1750 featuring West End Quarter estate #13, currently named Good Hope.
By 1749, provisions are being grown in the estate, evidenced by the grey coloring. Plantation house in the southeastern corner of the estate. A slave village is depicted to the east. Ownership attributed to Johann Schmid.