Estate Water Ground – Animal Mill

Water ground is estate 40 in St. Croix’s Prince’s Quarter. Based on appearances on historic maps, the animal mill was likely built in the mid 1750s.

In 1750, cotton was being cultivated in estate 40. By the 2nd Beck printing in the late 1750s, an animal mill appears and remains on the variants of the Beck map. Oxholm depicts an animal mill in the northeast section of the estate. None of the subsequent maps depict any structures.

The Beck variants attributed ownership to Richard Richardson and this remained consistent into the 1790s.

McGuire geographic dictionary of the Virgin Islands (p.195, 139) noted this as part of Old Pye or Williams’ Delight. In the 1920s, it was planted in sugar cane. In 1856, Bushby plantation combined this with Bog-of-Allen to the north.

Historic Maps of Water Ground

Snippet of the 1982 USGS topographic map featuring Prince's Quarter estate #40, currently named Water ground (Williams Delight).
The 1982 USGS topographic map shows no indication of ruins in the area of Water ground.
Snippet of the 1958 USGS topographic map featuring Prince's Quarter estate #40, currently named Water ground (Williams Delight).
The 1958 USGS topographic map shows no indication of ruins in the area of Water ground.
Snippet of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey topographic map of 1920 featuring Prince's Quarter estate #40, currently named Water ground (Williams Delight).
The 1920 USCGS topographic sheet shows the Old Pye Mill at elevation 83 feet in in the area of Water ground.
Snippet of the Danish Atlantic Islands Association map of 1907 featuring Prince's Quarter estate #40, currently named Water ground (Williams Delight).
The 1907 map identifies no estate in the area of Water ground.
Snippet of the Parsons map of 1856 featuring Prince's Quarter estate #40, currently named Water ground (Williams Delight).
Parsons’ 1856 map depicts no structures in the area of Water ground.
Snippet of the Oxholm map of 1799 featuring Prince's Quarter estate #40, currently named Water ground (Williams Delight).
Oxholm’s 1799 map shows an animal mill just west of the stream in the northeast corner of Water ground.
Snippet of the Janssen map of 1791 featuring Prince's Quarter estate #40, currently named Water ground (Williams Delight).
The 1791 manuscript map after Beck by Janssen attributes ownership to Richardson.
Snippet of the Mühlenfels map of 1790 featuring Prince's Quarter estate #40, currently named Water ground (Williams Delight).
The 1790 manuscript map after Beck by Mühlenfels attributes ownership to Richardson.
Snippet of the annotated Beck map of c.1770 featuring Prince's Quarter estate #40, currently named Water ground (Williams Delight).
The annotated Beck map of c.1770 depicts an animal mill in estate 40 and attributes ownership to Richard Richardson.
Snippet of the annotated Beck map of 1770 featuring Prince's Quarter estate #40, currently named Water ground (Williams Delight).
The annotated Beck map of 1770 depicts an animal mill in estate 40 and attributes ownership to Richard Richardson.
Snippet of the undated annotated Beck map featuring Prince's Quarter estate #40, currently named Water ground (Williams Delight).
The undated annotated Beck map depicts an animal mill in estate 40 and attributes ownership to Richard Richardson.
Snippet of the annotated Beck map of 1767 featuring Prince's Quarter estate #40, currently named Water ground (Williams Delight).
The annotated Beck map of 1767 depicts an animal mill in estate 40 and attributes ownership to Richard Richardson.
Snippet of the Küffner map of 1767 featuring Prince's Quarter estate #40, currently named Water ground (Williams Delight).
Küffner’s 1767 manuscript copy of Beck’s map depicts a settlement but no sugar mill and attributes no ownership in the area of Water Ground.
Snippet of the Zöllner manuscript copy of Beck from 1766 featuring Prince's Quarter estate #40, currently named Water ground (Williams Delight).
The Zöllner manuscript copy of Beck from 1766 depicts an animal mill in estate 40 and attributes ownership to Richard Richardson.
Snippet of the 1766 unsigned Beck manuscript copy featuring Prince's Quarter estate #40, currently named Water ground (Williams Delight).
The 1766 unsigned Beck manuscript copy depicts an animal mill in estate 40 and attributes ownership to Richard Richardson.
Snippet of the annotated Beck map of 1766 featuring Prince's Quarter estate #40, currently named Water ground (Williams Delight).
The annotated Beck map of 1766 depicts an animal mill in estate 40 and attributes ownership to Richard Richardson.
Snippet of the Beck map printed circa 1757 featuring Prince's Quarter estate #40, currently named Water ground (Williams Delight).
The second Beck printing shows an animal mill to the east of the stream in estate 40.
Snippet of the Beck map printed in 1754 featuring Prince's Quarter estate #40, currently named Water ground (Williams Delight).
The first Beck printing does not show a sugar mill icon in estate 40.
Snippet of the Cronenberg and von Jaegersberg map of 1750 featuring Prince's Quarter estate #40, currently named Water ground (Williams Delight).
The 1750 map by Cronenberg and von Jægersberg indicates cotton cultivation and structures but no animal mill in estate 40. Ownership attributed to William Richardsen.