Estate Gumbs Land – Animal Mill

Gumbs Land, now part of Cotton Valley, is estate 7 in St. Croix’s Company Quarter. Based on appearances on historic maps, the animal mill was likely built in the 1740s and decommissioned by the 1790s. Benjamin Gumbs was identified as the landowner of the portion of the estate south of where the animal mill was located. No field reconnaissance was done to locate ruins of the animal mill.

What today includes Estate Gumbs Land and some of Estate Cotton Valley had no habitation in the French period. No windmill was believed to have been constructed here, but this was the first estate in East End B quarter that cultivated sugar.

Sugar was cultivated starting with the Cronenberg map in 1750 through 1770, with an animal mill depicted in the northern half of estate 7. On the variants of the Beck maps that included ownership, the northern half of estate 7, where the animal mill was located, is attributed to Isaac Markoe. The Küffner map of 1767 depicts a sugar mill at the Marko plantation, indication that Küffner did not discriminate between windmills and animal mills.

The only subsequent map to indicate any structures in the vicinity of estate 7 is the 1921 topographic map that includes unspecified ruins in the general area. The McGuire geographic dictionary has no entry for Gumbs Land.

Historic Maps of Gumbs Land

Snippet of the 1982 USGS topographic map featuring East End B Quarter estate #7, currently named Gumbs Land.
Nothing but topographic marks indicated on the 1982 USGS map.
Snippet of the 1920 USCGS topographic map featuring East End B Quarter estate #7, currently named Gumbs Land.
Some ruins located in the general vicinity on the 1921 USCGS map.
Snippet of the 1907 Danish Atlantic Islands Association map featuring East End B Quarter estate #7, currently named Gumbs Land.
Nothing but topographic marks indicated on the 1907 map.
Snippet of the 1856 Parsons map featuring East End B Quarter estate #7, currently named Gumbs Land.
Nothing but topographic marks indicated on the Parsons map.
Snippet of the 1799 Oxholm map featuring East End B Quarter estate #7, currently named Gumbs Land.
Oxholm’s 1799 map shows no structures in estate 7. Similar to the variations on the Beck maps, the ownership is split between north and south.
Snippet of the 1791 Janssen map featuring East End B Quarter estate #7, currently named Gumbs Land.
The 1791 manuscript map after Beck by Janssen splits estate 7 north and south, with the northern half attributed to Isaac Markoe and the southern half to Benjamin Gumbs.
Snippet of the 1790 Mühlenfels map featuring East End B Quarter estate #7, currently named Gumbs Land.
The 1790 manuscript map after Beck by Mühlenfels splits estate 7 north and south, with the northern half attributed to Isaac Markoe and the southern half to Benjamin Gumbs.
Snippet of the c.1770 annotated Beck map featuring East End B Quarter estate #7, currently named Gumbs Land.
The c.1770 annotated Beck map depicts no animal mill in estate 7 and attributes ownership to Isaac Markoe in the northern half and Benjamin Gumbs (or unattributed) in the southern half.
Snippet of the 1770 annotated Beck map featuring East End B Quarter estate #7, currently named Gumbs Land.
The 1770 annotated Beck map depicts an animal mill in estate 7 and attributes ownership to Isaac Markoe in the northern half and Benjamin Gumbs (or unattributed) in the southern half.
Snippet of the undated annotated Beck map featuring East End B Quarter estate #7, currently named Gumbs Land.
The undated annotated Beck map depicts an animal mill in estate 7 and attributes ownership to Isaac Markoe in the northern half and Benjamin Gumbs (or unattributed) in the southern half.
Snippet of the 1767 Küffner map featuring East End B Quarter estate #7, currently named Gumbs Land.
Küffner’s 1767 Beck replica includes the icon for a sugar mill at the Marko Plantation.
Snippet of the 1767 annotated Beck map featuring East End B Quarter estate #7, currently named Gumbs Land.
The 1767 annotated Beck map depicts an animal mill in estate 7 and attributes ownership to Isaac Markoe in the northern half and Benjamin Gumbs (or unattributed) in the southern half.
Snippet of the 1766 Zöllner manuscript copy of Beck featuring East End B Quarter estate #7, currently named Gumbs Land.
The 1766 Zöllner manuscript copy of Beck depicts an animal mill in estate 7 and attributes ownership to Isaac Markoe in the northern half and Benjamin Gumbs (or unattributed) in the southern half.
Snippet of the 1766 unsigned Beck manuscript copy featuring East End B Quarter estate #7, currently named Gumbs Land.
The 1766 unsigned Beck manuscript copy depicts no animal mill in estate 7 and attributes ownership to Isaac Markoe in the northern half and Benjamin Gumbs (or unattributed) in the southern half.
Snippet of the 1766 annotated Beck map featuring East End B Quarter estate #7, currently named Gumbs Land.
The 1766 annotated Beck map depicts an animal mill in estate 7 and attributes ownership to Isaac Markoe in the northern half and Benjamin Gumbs (or unattributed) in the southern half.
Snippet of the Beck map printed circa 1757 featuring East End B Quarter estate #7, currently named Gumbs Land.
Both Beck printings show an animal mill icon in the center of estate 7.
Snippet of the Beck map printed in 1754 featuring East End B Quarter estate #7, currently named Gumbs Land.
Both Beck printings show an animal mill icon in the center of estate 7.
Snippet of the 1750 Cronenberg and von Jaegersberg map featuring East End B Quarter estate #7, currently named Gumbs Land.
The Cronenberg and von Jægersberg map of 1750 indicates estate 7 is planted in sugar, evidenced by the yellow coloring. An animal mill is depicted along with a house and some slave homes. Ownership is attributed to Reimert Haagensen.