Estate Catherine’s Rest – Animal Mill

Catherine’s Rest is estate 12 in St. Croix’s Company Quarter. Based on appearances on historic maps, the animal mill was likely built in the 1740s and decommissioned by the mid-1750s. The animal mill appears on the 1750 manuscript map and the first Beck printing, being obscured on the second printing. No field reconnaissance was done to locate ruins of the animal mill.

Sugar cultivation came early to estate 12, with structures including an animal mill depicted on the 1750 map. Catherine’s Rest creates curiosity between the two Beck printings by virtue of the animal mill appearing on the first printed map being rubbed out from the printing plate on the second printing, a change clearly evident on the several surviving copies of the second printing. The annotated Beck maps retained what was printed in estate 12, with the 1766 map depicting the animal mill and all others no animal mill. The manuscript copies of Beck followed the second printing with no windmill. However, the Küffner map from Oldendorp’s book depicts a sugar mill, attributing ownership to Nully.

The 1799 Oxholm map depicts a structure but not a sugar mill icon at Catharina Ryst and the 1856 Parsons map does the same at Catherine’s Rest. None of the 20th century topographic maps depict ruins identifiable as a windmill.

The 1750 map attributed ownership to Joh. Michael Lavien, most noted as being the first husband of Alexander Hamilton’s mother and had her imprisoned along with her lover Johann Cronenberg, the surveyor largely responsible for the 1750 map, and both subsequently expelled from St. Croix. By 1766, ownership transitioned to Major de Nully. By 1790, ownership of the northern half of estate 12 attributed to Oxholm and the southern half to De Nully.

McGuire geographic dictionary of the Virgin Islands (p.52) notes the location and varied spellings of Catherine’s Rest along with its early ownership by Major de Nully.

Historic Maps of

Snippet of the 1982 USGS topographic map featuring Company's Quarter estate #12, currently named Catherine’s Rest.
The 1982 USGS topographic map shows no ruins identifiable as an animal mill at Catherines Rest.
Snippet of the 1958 USGS topographic map of featuring Company's Quarter estate #12, currently named Catherine’s Rest.
The 1958 USGS topographic map shows no ruins identifiable as an animal mill at Catherines Rest.
Snippet of the 1920 USCGS topographic map featuring Company's Quarter estate #12, currently named Catherine’s Rest.
The 1919 USCGS topographic sheet shows no structures identifiable as an animal mill at Catherines Rest.
Snippet of the 1907 Danish Atlantic Islands Association map featuring Company's Quarter estate #12, currently named Catherine’s Rest.
The 1907 map identifies an estate at Catherines Rest.
Snippet of the 1856 Parsons map featuring Company's Quarter estate #12, currently named Catherine’s Rest.
Parsons’ 1856 map depicts no animal mill at elevation 190 feet at Catherine’s Rest.
Snippet of the 1799 Oxholm map featuring Company's Quarter estate #12, currently named Catherine’s Rest.
Snippet of the 1799 Oxholm map featuring Company’s Quarter estate #12, currently named Catherine’s Rest.
Snippet of the 1791 Janssen map featuring Company's Quarter estate #12, currently named Catherine’s Rest.
The 1791 manuscript map after Beck by Janssen attributes ownership of estate 12 to DeNully in the south and Peter Lotharius Oxholm in the north.
Snippet of the 1790 Mühlenfels map featuring Company's Quarter estate #12, currently named Catherine’s Rest.
The 1790 manuscript map after Beck by Mühlenfels attributes ownership of estate 12 to DeNully in the south and Peter Lotharius Oxholm in the north.
Snippet of the c.1770 annotated Beck map featuring Company's Quarter estate #12, currently named Catherine’s Rest.
The c.1770 annotated Beck map has the shadow of the rubbed out animal mill in estate 12 and attributes ownership to Major de Nully.
Snippet of the 1770 annotated Beck map featuring Company's Quarter estate #12, currently named Catherine’s Rest.
The 1770 annotated Beck map has the shadow of the rubbed out animal mill in estate 12 and attributes ownership to Major de Nully.
Snippet of the undated annotated Beck map featuring Company's Quarter estate #12, currently named Catherine’s Rest.
The undated annotated Beck map has the shadow of the rubbed out animal mill in estate 12 and attributes ownership to Major de Nully.
Snippet of the 1767 Küffner map featuring Company's Quarter estate #12, currently named Catherine’s Rest.
The 1767 Küffner manuscript copy of Beck’s map depicts a sugar mill and attributes ownership to Nully in the area of Catherine’s Rest.
Snippet of the 1767 annotated Beck map featuring Company's Quarter estate #12, currently named Catherine’s Rest.
The 1767 annotated Beck map has the shadow of the rubbed out animal mill in estate 12 and attributes ownership to Major de Nully.
Snippet of the 1766 Zöllner manuscript copy of Beck featuring Company's Quarter estate #12, currently named Catherine’s Rest.
The 1766 Zöllner manuscript copy of Beck depicts no animal mill in estate 12 and attributes ownership to Major de Nully.
Snippet of the 1766 unsigned Beck manuscript copy featuring Company's Quarter estate #12, currently named Catherine’s Rest.
The 1766 unsigned Beck manuscript copy depicts no animal mill in estate 12 and attributes ownership to Major de Nully.
Snippet of the 1766 annotated Beck map featuring Company's Quarter estate #12, currently named Catherine’s Rest.
The 1766 annotated Beck map depicts an animal mill in estate 12 and attributes ownership to Major de Nully.
Snippet of the Beck map printed circa 1757 featuring Company's Quarter estate #12, currently named Catherine’s Rest.
The second Beck printing has a rubbed out animal mill in the west side of estate 12.
Snippet of the Beck map printed in 1754 featuring Company's Quarter estate #12, currently named Catherine’s Rest.
The first Beck printing had an animal mill in the west side of estate 12.
Snippet of the 1750 Cronenberg and von Jaegersberg map featuring Company's Quarter estate #12, currently named Catherine’s Rest.
The 1750 map by Cronenberg and von Jægersberg indicates sugar cultivation and structures including an animal mill in estate 12. Ownership attributed to Joh. Michael Lavien.